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1920x1080 YI:542 - Harvest Wallpaper, Harvest H... LINK

Applications of GF-TENG for harvesting a wide range of mechanical energy. (a) Harvesting energy from sliding of a human hand. (b) Harvesting energy from acceleration or deceleration of a remote control car. (c) Device structure for noncontact GF-TENG. (d) Harvesting energy from people walking by noncontact GF-TENG and the real-time measurement of Isc. (e) Total conversion efficiency of noncontact GF-TENG for harvesting slight vibration under different load resistances [59].

1920x1080 YI:542 - Harvest Wallpaper, Harvest H...

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Structural design of the hybrid power textile. (a and b) Schematic illustration of the hybrid power textile, which is a mixture of two textile-based all-solid energy harvesters: fabric TENG (a) and photovoltaic textile(b). Enlarged view of the interlaced structure of both the fabric TENG (c) and the photovoltaic textile (d) [112].

Desertification is land degradation in arid, semi-arid, and dry sub-humid areas, collectively known as drylands, resulting from many factors, including human activities and climatic variations. The range and intensity of desertification have increased in some dryland areas over the past several decades (high confidence). Drylands currently cover about 46.2% (0.8%) of the global land area and are home to 3 billion people. The multiplicity and complexity of the processes of desertification make its quantification difficult. Desertification hotspots, as identified by a decline in vegetation productivity between the 1980s and 2000s, extended to about 9.2% of drylands (0.5%), affecting about 500 (120) million people in 2015. The highest numbers of people affected are in South and East Asia, the circum Sahara region including North Africa and the Middle East including the Arabian Peninsula (low confidence). Other dryland regions have also experienced desertification. Desertification has already reduced agricultural productivity and incomes (high confidence) and contributed to the loss of biodiversity in some dryland regions (medium confidence). In many dryland areas, spread of invasive plants has led to losses in ecosystem services (high confidence), while over-extraction is leading to groundwater depletion (high confidence). Unsustainable land management, particularly when coupled with droughts, has contributed to higher dust-storm activity, reducing human well-being in drylands and beyond (high confidence). Dust storms were associated with global cardiopulmonary mortality of about 402,000 people in 2005. Higher intensity of sand storms and sand dune movements are causing disruption and damage to transportation and solar and wind energy harvesting infrastructures (high confidence). 3.1.1, 3.1.4, 3.2.1, 3.3.1, 3.4.1, 3.4.2, 3.4.2, 3.7.3, 3.7.4

The use of indigenous and local knowledge enhances the success of SLM and its ability to address desertification (Altieri and Nicholls 20171148; Engdawork and Bork 20161149). Using indigenous and local knowledge for combating desertification could contribute to climate change adaptation strategies (Belfer et al. 20171150; Codjoe et al. 20141151; Etchart 20171152; Speranza et al. 20101153; Makondo and Thomas 20181154; Maldonado et al. 20161155; Nyong et al. 20071156). There are abundant examples of how indigenous and local knowledge, which are an important part of broader agroecological knowledge (Altieri 20181157), have allowed livelihood systems in drylands to be maintained despite environmental constraints. An example is the numerous traditional water harvesting techniques that are used across the drylands to adapt to dry spells and climate change. These include creating planting pits (zai, ngoro) and micro-basins, contouring hill slopes and terracing (Biazin et al. 20121158) (Section 3.6.1). Traditional ndiva water harvesting systems in Tanzania enable the capture of runoff water from highland areas to downstream community-managed micro-dams for subsequent farm delivery through small-scale canal networks (Enfors and Gordon 20081159). A further example are pastoralist communities located in drylands who have developed numerous methods to sustainably manage rangelands. Pastoralist communities in Morocco developed the agdal system of seasonally alternating use of rangelands to limit overgrazing (Dominguez 20141160) as well as to manage forests in the Moroccan High Atlas Mountains (Auclair et al. 20111161). Across the Arabian Peninsula and North Africa, a rotational grazing system, hema, was historically practiced by the Bedouin communities (Hussein 20111162; Louhaichi and Tastad 20101163). The Beni-Amer herders in the Horn of Africa have developed complex livestock breeding and selection systems (Fre 20181164). Although well adapted to resource-sparse dryland environments, traditional practices are currently not able to cope with increased demand for food and environmental changes (Enfors and Gordon 20081165; Engdawork and Bork 20161166). Moreover, there is robust evidence documenting the marginalisation or loss of indigenous and local knowledge (Dominguez 20141167; Fernández-Giménez and Fillat Estaque 20121168; Hussein 20111169; Kodirekkala 20171170; Moreno-Calles et al. 20121171). Combined use of indigenous and local knowledge and new SLM technologies can contribute to raising resilience to the challenges of climate change and desertification (high confidence) (Engdawork and Bork 20161172; Guzman et al. 20181173).

Attribution of success in soil and water conservation measures was confounded by inadequate monitoring of rainfall variability and lack of catchment hydrologic indicators (Bhalla et al. 20131748). Social and economic trade-offs included bias of benefits to downstream crop producers at the expense of pastoralists, women and upstream communities. This biased distribution of IWM benefits could potentially be addressed by compensation for environmental services between communities (Kerr et al. 20021749). The successes in some areas also led to increased demand for water, especially groundwater, since there has been no corresponding social regulation of water use after improvement in water regime (Samuel et al. 20071750). Policies and management did not ensure water allocation to sectors with the highest social and economic benefits (Batchelor et al. 20031751). Limited field evidence of the positive impacts of rainwater harvesting at the local scale is available, but there are several potential negative impacts at the watershed scale (Glendenning et al. 20121752). Furthermore, watershed projects are known to have led to more water scarcity, and higher expectations for irrigation water supply, further exacerbating water scarcity (Bharucha et al. 20141753). 041b061a72

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