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Groin Gorbachev
Groin Gorbachev

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Clothing treated with the pyrethroid permethrin is available in the United States as consumer products to prevent tick bites. We used tick bioassays to quantify contact irritancy and toxicity of permethrin-treated clothing for three important tick vectors of human pathogens: the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae); the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae); and the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (Acari: Ixodidae). We first demonstrated that field-collected I. scapularis nymphs from Minnesota were as susceptible as laboratory-reared nymphs to a permethrin-treated textile. Field ticks examined in bioassays on the same day they were collected displayed contact irritancy by actively dislodging from a vertically oriented permethrin-treated textile, and a forced 1-min exposure resulted in all ticks being unable to move normally, thus posing no more than minimal risk of biting, 1 h after contact with the treated textile. Moreover, we documented lack of normal movement for laboratory-reared I. scapularis nymphs by 1 h after contact for 1 min with a wide range of permethrin-treated clothing, including garments made from cotton, synthetic materials, and blends. A comparison of the impact of a permethrin-treated textile across tick species and life stages revealed the strongest effect on I. scapularis nymphs (0% with normal movement 1 h after a 1-min exposure), followed by A. americanum nymphs (14.0%), I. scapularis females (38.0%), D. variabilis females (82.0%), and A. americanum females (98.0%). Loss of normal movement for all ticks 1 h after contact with the permethrin-treated textile required exposures of 1 min for I. scapularis nymphs, 2 min for A. americanum nymphs, and 5 min for female I. scapularis, D. variabilis, and A. americanum ticks. We conclude that use of permethrin-treated clothing shows promise to prevent bites by medically important ticks. Further research needs are discussed.


Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours


The aim of this study was to document the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks parasitizing wild birds in Costa Rica. Birds were trapped at seven locations in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009, and 2010; then visually examined for the presence of ticks. Ticks were identified, and part of them was tested individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. PCR products were DNA-sequenced and analyzed in BLAST to determine similarities with previously reported rickettsial agents. A total of 1878 birds were examined, from which 163 birds (9%) were infested with 388 ticks of the genera Amblyomma and Ixodes. The following Amblyomma (in decreasing order of abundance) were found in immature stages (larvae and nymphs): Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sabanerae, Amblyomma varium, Amblyomma maculatum, and Amblyomma ovale. Ixodes ticks were represented by Ixodes minor and two unclassified species, designated here as Ixodes sp. genotype I, and Ixodes sp. genotype II. Twelve of 24 tested A. longirostre ticks were found to be infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 of 4 A. sabanerae were found to be infected with Rickettsia bellii. Eight of 10 larval Ixodes minor were infected with an endosymbiont (a novel Rickettsia sp. agent) genetically related to the Ixodes scapularis endosymbiont. No rickettsial DNA was found in A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. maculatum, A. ovale, A. varium, Ixodes sp. I, and Ixodes sp. II. We report the occurrence of I. minor in Costa Rica for the first time and a number of new bird host-tick associations. Moreover, 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' and R. bellii were found in A. longirostre and A. sabanerae, respectively, in Costa Rica for the first time. Copyright 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.


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