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Groin Gorbachev
Groin Gorbachev

Jet Transport Performance Methods

Introduction: When deriving an objective assessment of piloting performance from flight data records, it is common to employ metrics which purely evaluate errors in flight path parameters. The adequacy of pilot performance is evaluated from the flight path of the aircraft. However, in large jet transport aircraft these measures may be insensitive and require supplementing with frequency-based measures of control input parameters.

Jet Transport Performance Methods

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Method: Flight path and control input data were collected from pilots undertaking a jet transport aircraft conversion course during a series of symmetric and asymmetric approaches in a flight simulator. The flight path data were analyzed for deviations around the optimum flight path while flying an instrument landing approach. Manipulation of the flight controls was subject to analysis using a series of power spectral density measures.

Results: The flight path metrics showed no significant differences in performance between the symmetric and asymmetric approaches. However, control input frequency domain measures revealed that the pilots employed highly different control strategies in the pitch and yaw axes.

Conclusion: The results demonstrate that to evaluate pilot performance fully in large aircraft, it is necessary to employ performance metrics targeted at both the outer control loop (flight path) and the inner control loop (flight control) parameters in parallel, evaluating both the product and process of a pilot's performance.

The object of the design synthesis process dealt with in the previous chapters is to achieve the goals laid down in the design specification. The first cycle of the iterative design process will be concluded with an analysis of the operational characteristics for the purpose of investigating to what extent the design requirements have been met. Some general comments on the prediction of aerodynamic characteristics are made in this chapter. Definitions and subdivisions of the drag according to several schemes are discussed. The choice of operational limit speeds and the determination of n-V diagrams are then briefly reviewed. A procedure to analyze the flight profile, reserve fuel quantity and payload-range characteristics is given, followed by some general aspects of climb and field performance.

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The complex flow physics generated by high lift systems poses significantchallenges to CFD codes. This list of flow physics includes laminar flow,attachment line transition, relaminarization, transonic slat flow, confluentboundary layers, wake interactions, separation, and reattachment. Evenin two-dimensional flows, state-of-the-art codes are unable to consistentlypredict increments in performance due to changes in Reynolds number andslat/flap positioning.

By systematically exploiting the information structure of an uncertain time-delayed dynamical system and under some reasonable technical conditions, the proposed PARC framework attempts to yield good performances without requiring ad hoc delay compensation strategies or time-consuming and expensive off-line identification of system parameters and disturbance model. Using the system measurements, estimates of the states and that of the tracking error are constructed using an adaptive robust observer that satisfies certain technical conditions to guarantee its existence. These estimates are then used: 1) with the prediction-based adaptive model compensation and the prediction-based projection type adaptation laws to reduce the structured portion of the cumulative uncertainties in a stable manner and 2) with a prediction-based robust filter to attenuate the cumulative uncertainties due to uncertain prediction to guarantee semi-global exponential convergence for the tracking error with an uniform ultimate bound that depends on the delay, uncertainty bounds, and controller gain. Further, a robust prediction scheme is discussed that implicitly factors in the system uncertainties in its prediction and helps to decompose the unmatched uncertainties into a larger matched portion and a smaller unmatched portion, leading to less conservative results. The proof relies on Lyapunov-based analysis with mathematical induction arguments to guarantee the stability and performance for the tracking error, while the boundedness of the control law is shown by recasting the delayed input integral equation into a series convergence problem using the Picard iteration. It is further noted that if no time-delay acts on the system, then the proposed controller can guarantee global stability and performance for the tracking error. Further, if no disturbance acts on the system after some finite time, then we retrieve the results of the standard Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) design. The design is simple and amenable to implementation. The effectiveness of the analytical findings is validated with illustrative examples such as a longitudinal flight control of a jet transport aircraft and motion control of linear motor drives. 041b061a72




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